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Journal of Radiography & Radiation Sciences

2020;  (v 34): 1-7-11


Sonographic Assessment of Kidneys in Human Immunodeficiency Virus Seropositive Patients: A systematic Review

Mohammed Sidi; Abbas Kabir .

Copyright © 2017 The Association Of Radiographers Of Nigeria. All Rights Reserved.

This work is licensed under the Creative Commons Attribution International License (CC BY).

Background: Human immunodeficiency virus/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (HIV/AIDS) remains a major challenge globally, and approximately 180,000 people died from AIDS-related illnesses in Nigeria in 2015. HIV associated nephropathy is the third most common cause of end-stage renal failure.

Objectives: To review published original research articles on the sonographic evaluation of kidneys in HIV seropositive patients, identifying missing gaps and coming up with an area of further study.

Methodology: The study was retrospective and a secondary source of data from published original research articles was used. The search was performed through Google search using Google Scholar, EMBASE, PubMed and Medline. All the published original research articles in the English language and the availability of full-text articles were included in the study.

Results: An electronic search using the search terms had identified 58 related published articles, but only 12 articles were reviewed. This study found out that human immunodeficiency virus-associated nephropathy (HIVAN) to be a most predominant renal disease in HIV positive patients leaving in sub-Saharan Africa with increased renal parenchymal echogenicity and decreased corticomedullary differentiation sonographically, which correlate in raised of serum creatinine level and the degree of patients immune competence (CD4 count). Few studies correlated the sonographic findings with histopathological feature and none uses Doppler ultrasound.

Conclusion: This study has identified a correlation of the sonographic findings with the histopathological features and the use of Doppler ultrasound as the missing gaps from the previously published research articles in the subject area.

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